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Investors are any entities, companies, or people who commit capital with the expectation of receiving a profit in return which the investor hopes to do so with minimal risk. There are many types of investors that use different financial instruments to earn a rate of return. Some investors invest in startups with the hope that the company will grow and prosper. Some put their money into a business in exchange for part ownership in the company. Some also invest in the stock market in return for dividend payments. Some investors are retail or individual investors, which are those who invest in securities and assets on their own. There are also institutional investors, which is a company or organization that invests money to buy securities or assets such as real estate. Investors also possess some important skills. These include; critical thinking, decisiveness, mathematical abilities, communication, and negotiation.

What is an Investor?

Investors can be people, companies, banks, organizations, or other entities that give capital to make a profit. Investors can choose to invest in several ways, these include real estate, commodities, currency, derivatives, bonds, stocks, etc. Investors can also choose how they want to invest their funds. Primary investing is direct by giving capital into a business and secondary investing is from buying stocks from other investors. 

What Types of Properties do Investors Buy?

Buying an investment property is another way investors can make money. Listed below are the types of properties investors buy. 

  • Residential: A popular way to invest in properties is to establish rental properties. Rental properties help to supplement income by allowing investors to collect monthly rent payments. 
  • Commercial: Corporations often purchase commercial properties for business purposes as a form of investment. 
  • Mixed-Use: Mixed-use properties can be used for both commercial and residential purposes. 

What are the Different Types of Investors?

There are different types of investors with different styles of investing. Here are a few that are the most common types of investors. 

  • Angel Investor: Angel investors have amassed amounts of wealth and revenue for themselves. Their income is normally three to four times the income of most successful people. They have a net worth that is often in the millions, and they are an investor who can be found anywhere in the industry sector.
  • P2P Lenders: P2P lenders are investors that help small businesses get a chance with their products and services in the financial market. They are specialized in this type of investing, and if a business wants their financial help, they need to appeal to them by themselves. These lenders will fund small business ventures and purchase shares in the company.
  • Personal Investor: Personal investors are individual investors that invest their capital in a business company for their own personal gain. They do not represent a group, nor do they invest only in small ventures particularly, but everywhere they see a chance of investment. 
  • Banks: Banks invest differently in a different way than individual investors. Banks provide businesses, companies, and individual loans that act as their investment. The loan gets a fixed monthly return which is increased by the interest rate charged by the bank.
  • Venture Capitalists: Investors that invest in a business or company only if a business has the potential of becoming immensely successful are called venture capitalists. If a business shows signs of rapid growth in the future, a venture capitalist will be the first investor to invest a large amount of capital in the business by purchasing an equity stake. 

What are the Roles of an Investor?

Listed below are investors’ roles.

  • Learn about investing. It’s important to be informed through classes, seminars, and books so that you’ll have a greater understanding of what it means to be an investor. 
  • Understand that all investments involve risk. It’s important to know all the risks involved in investing. 
  • Review new account documents carefully. The investor should read everything, including the fine print. 
  • Do research on any potential investment. It’s important to know how the investment works and the risks involved before moving forward

An investor has a few roles in a company once they decide that they would like to invest in that company. Investors can play a major role in the direction that a company takes. They can provide guidance, along with the capital, to help a company succeed by establishing a strong business model. 

What Skills Do Investors Require?

To be a successful investor it’s important to have the required investor skills. While there are different types of investors, many still possess the skills listed below;

  • Critical thinking: Having the ability to think logically and to reason when identifying the potential benefits and risks of an investment is important when making an investment decision. 
  • Decisiveness: Investors need to make quick decisions based on the knowledge and research they cultivate while studying markets. 
  • Mathematical abilities: Investors are required to make complex calculations about financial opportunities using factors like interest, dividends, and market growth or recession. 
  • Communication: An investor communicates financial information to clients and other professionals in the process of allocating funds, determining the status of an investment, and withdrawing money for investment purposes. They must be able to clearly explain their strategies for investment and the performance of market securities both in the present and in the future. 
  • Negotiation: Investors negotiate monetary exchanges between a client and a financial institution. They need the confidence to engage in investment opportunities in a variety of markets. 

Who can Become an Investor?

Anyone can become an investor in a company. The investor is the one who invests in the company by allocating the capital for profit in the future. Investors can be individuals who purchase small amounts of securities. An investor can invest in any company such as Sole Proprietorship, Public Company, Private Company, Limited Liability Company, Partnership, or any other company. 

Shareholders, people who own stock in a company, also can become investors through the purchase of stock in the company. Other companies can invest in other companies to secure their future earnings. Investing between companies helps to create partnerships and form relationships with companies relating to their products and services. Foreign individuals can also invest in the company. It is considered Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) where investments are made in equity shares, fully and mandatorily convertible preference shares, and fully and mandatories convertible debentures with the pricing being decided upfront as a figure or based on the formula that is decided upon. 

How to Become an Investor?

If you want to become an investor there are five easy steps to follow. 

  1. Do Your Research: It is important to know what to expect when you decide to become an investor. Look for stories of other investors. Find an investor who might be willing to mentor you. By speaking with successful investors, you could learn a lot and avoid common mistakes that new investors make. Successful investors know that markets go up and down. If you don’t do your research in advance, you won’t know what to do when markets go down. It is important to know what to do when your investments are climbing. You need to make sure that you use growth to expand and diversify, not to silo your investments into a narrow stream. The research will give you an idea of what to look for and what happens before explosive growth. 
  2. Make a Business Plan: It is important to have a business plan. Most businesses start off in a deficit or with a limited amount of funds. A business plan will help you to establish a few good habits that will put you on the right foot as you work to grow your business. A business plan will also help you manage your funds as you go. If you don’t have the funds to hire an accountant, you should set up accounting software to manage funds. You also need to have goals for how large you’d like to grow. 
  3. Carve Out a Niche: Having a niche as an investment company is important. It helps to keep you focused on what you are doing and investing in as a company. Some companies will invest in minerals, others in the tech industry, then others in natural gas and energy. Some investors might have ethical concerns about production processes and want to stay clear of certain industries.
  4. Look for Clients: To build your professional investment group you will need an adequate number of clients. You need more money than your own to build your investments. Once you have shown a strong history with a few good trades and smart investments, you’ll be able to convince clients to invest more. 
  5. Make Some Allies: It’s important to make friends and allies in the world of investment. Treat people respectfully when you work with them. You may want to partner with talented investors in your area later on. If you have a niche, you may get referrals from other investment specialists. 

What is an Investor who Owns a Stock?

An investor who owns stock in a company is also known as a shareholder. There are different levels of ownership in a company when one buys stock in that company, and it comes with certain rights and responsibilities. Shareholders are able to reap the benefits of a business’s success through an increased stock valuation or financial profits distributed as dividends. Shareholders are also allowed to vote on certain issues that affect the company or fund in which they hold shares. 

Why do Investors Rely on Different Financial Instruments?

A financial instrument is a financial contract between two parties. It carries financial value and represents a binding agreement between two or more parties. Examples of financial instruments are bills of exchange, bond, share, stocks, futures, check, currency, etc. Each financial instrument serves a different purpose and meets different needs of investors. It is necessary for an investor to use different financial instruments in order to meet their needs and their clients’ needs. Some financial instruments have more advantages than others. For example, equity-based instruments are a permanent source of funds for businesses because equity shares allow businesses to have a good option of borrowing and enjoy retained earnings. Other financial instruments, such as cash deposits, have disadvantages. Cash deposits will not allow you to withdraw funds for a specified time mentioned in the agreement. If a company wants to withdraw before the maturity period, it may get lower returns. 

Where do Investors Typically Generate Returns?

Depending on how a person chooses to invest and what they chose to invest in will determine how they generate returns. If one chooses to buy stock in a company, then if the stock goes up in price and the investor decides to sell the stock, they will then have a return on their investment. However, if the stock goes down, they will lose money in their investment. The same is true with buying investment properties. If one is buying property to rent, they will have a return if the lessee pays their rent. But, the investor could lose money if they have to make major repairs to their investment property. 

What is the Difference Between Passive and Active Investors?

Active investing takes a hands-on approach and requires that someone act in the role of a portfolio manager. Active money management tries to beat the stock market’s average returns and take full advantage of short-term price fluctuations. Passive investors invest for the long term. Passive investors limit the amount of buying and selling within their portfolios. 

There are a few advantages to passive investing such as ultra-low fees. Passive investing is also very transparent, it is always clear which assets are in an index fund. Passive investing is also very tax efficient since the buy and holding of stock doesn’t result in massive capital gains tax for the year. Some disadvantages of passive investing are that it can be too limited. Passive funds are limited to a specific index or a predetermined set of investments with little to no variance making investors locked into those holdings. Also, passive investing produced small returns. Passive returns will never beat the market. 

Active investing has advantages which include; flexibility, hedging, and tax management. Active investors aren’t required to follow a specific index. Also, active investing can hedge their bets using various techniques such as short sales and put options. They are able to exit specific stocks or sectors when the risks become too big. Active investors are able to tailor tax management strategies by selling investments that are losing money to offset the taxes on the big winners. Some disadvantages of active investing are that it can be very expensive and can have active risk.

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